Please find below, answers to questions that are repeatedly posed to us.


What is language?
Language is formed by people of the same culture and ancestry. Only since the 19th century, has science concerned itself with the phenomenon of "language". To this day, scientists still argue about the origin of "language". Language consists – simply formulated – of words and sentences. The intonation and stress hereby play an important role, because it is only though them that the intended meaning of a specific word and sentence can be perceived.


What does "Translation" mean?
Translation does not merely involve translating words literally into a target language text, but also requires a completely appellative and mentality adequate transmission of the content of the source text into the target language text. A reader, when reading a translated text must have the impression that it pertains to the original text. In order to achieve this goal, a professional translator must dispose over an extremely high degree of linguistic and specialist knowledge. He must know how to translate a specific word in relation to the contents in the source text, in the same manner in the target language text.


What is a translator?
Translators are language mediators that transfer a source text into a desired target language, exclusively in the written form. The target text language should hereby in each case be the native language of the translator.


What is the difference between a graduate/state-approved translator and a sworn/duly authorised translator?
A graduate or state-approved translator - insofar as he/she has not successfully passed the relevant supplement examination – is not authorised to certify documents, etc.; whereby this is without prejudice to his/her academic training and professional qualifications.

A sworn/duly authorised translator has in contrast successfully passed the relevant supplementary test with the objective of being in the position to authenticate official documents. Upon the successful completion thereof, he/she is duly commissioned hereto and is thus empowered to authenticate documents. Whether someone is "duly authorised" or "sworn" is governed by the national regulations of each federal state in Germany. This is as such a matter of the relevant German federal state.

Why is emphasis placed on native speakers?
Languages are permanently evolving, and are thus always in a state of constant change. Only a native speaker is able to provide a completely appellative and mentality adequate translation of the source text into the relevant foreign target language. Since the theory of meaning (semantics) is undoubtedly of utmost importance when translating, this is ensured exclusively by native speakers. Only so can it be ensured that the target text (translation) reads as the source text (original).


What is the difference between a work translation and a publication-released translation?


Work translation
By this we mean translations that are not intended to be published and for which adaptations are also not necessary, i.e. the adaptation of a text according to the target text country and the local target group.


Publication-released translation
In the event that a customer intends to publish the text that has been submitted for translation pursuant to the order; he/she shall be required to communicate this when placing the order. Customers shall be invoiced a surcharge on the normal price per line for publication- released translations, due to the increased workload.


What determines the price per line?
a) The language group under which the target text language of the text that is to be translated, is categorised,
b) the nature of the text and degree of difficulty, under which the text that is to be translated, is categorised and
c) the form of the desired translation: Express translation, work translation or intended for publication, print-ready translation.

What constitutes the degree of difficulty of a translation?
a) Whether a text is difficult to read, due to unclear handwriting, unclear template, disregard of the respective country specific customary linguistic rules.
b) The specialist area, under which the text that is to be translated, is categorised.
c) Which terminology is required, e.g. legal, technical, and scientific (onomasiology).
d) Morphology.
e) Syntax.
f) Semantics

Is an Italian or Chinese text, for example, as long as a German text?
No. The specification of a deviating number of lines, between the original text and the target text finds its justification in the linguistic root of the relevant target text language and its grammar.
An Italian text is for example, approximately 20 - 25% longer than the relevant German text; whereas a corresponding text in the Chinese language is in contrast about 1/3 shorter than the relevant German text.

How are translation costs calculated?

Method of calculation: "Authoritative for the compensation per line is the text in the target language with an average of 55 keystrokes. “ Source: „Law on the remuneration of experts, interpreters and translators as well as the compensation of volunteer judges, lay judges, witnesses, and third parties pursuant to the Judicial Remuneration and Compensation Act - JVEG“, Meyer/Höver/Bach, commentary, edition 23 from 2005. For the purposes of this section

3 Remuneration of experts, interpreters and translators,

§ 11 recital 11.0-111.1, p 184 et seq.

Commenced lines are combined to form one full line. A page that is to be translated consists of 30 lines. The calculation of the total lines is performed with the help of a text counter.

Insofar as the use of Latin characters is not envisaged in the target text of the translation, although the source text of the translation entails Latin characters, authoritative in such a case, is the number of lines in the target text.


Minimum fees
This depends on the language group.

Cancellation of a translation order
Insofar as a translation order is cancelled after we have already started with the translation, we charge 10% of the total order value.

Surcharges are billed for:

Express translations
Special layout work

Surcharges are in principle only billed pursuant to prior consultation and a written agreement with the client.

Ancillary costs
Courier service and postage / packaging shall be billed according to the actually incurred expenses.
Costs for camera-ready templates, photo typesetting, printing.
These are based on the actual incurred expenses and shall be billed to the client without extra charge.


Non-binding quotation
The calculated fee in a non-binding quotation only applies as an approximate price. Authoritative for the fee calculation is the actual length of the completed translation text. Binding in this case, is however the price of the translator per standard line, mentioned in the relevant non-binding quotation.

Binding quotation
The fee calculated in a binding quotation is deemed as binding, unless otherwise stated.


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Please note that your request or order for a translation is not considered received until you have a written confirmation from us.

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